Publications from April to December 2011
V. Stangl, C. Kuhn, S. Hentschel, N. Jochmann, C. Jacob, V. Böhm, K. Fröhlich, L. Müller, C. Gericke, M. Lorenz: Lack of effects of tomato products on endothelial function in humans: Results of a randomised, placebo controlled cross-over study - Br. J. Nutr. 105 (2011) 263-267.
L. Müller, V. Böhm: Antioxidant activity of β-carotene compounds in different in vitro assays - Molecules 16 (2011) 1055-1069.
A. Mordente, B. Guantario, E. Meucci, A. Silvestrini, E. Lombardi, G. E. Martorana, B. Giardina, V. Böhm: Lycopene and cardiovascular diseases: An update - Curr. Med. Chem. 18 (2011) 1146-1163.
L. Müller, P. Goupy, K. Fröhlich, O. Dangles, C. Caris-Veyrat, V. Böhm: Comparative study on antioxidant activity of lycopene (Z)-isomers in different assays - J. Agric. Food Chem. 59 (2011) 4504-4511.
L. Müller, K. Fröhlich, V. Böhm: Comparative antioxidant activities of carotenoids measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ABTS bleaching assay (αTEAC), DPPH assay and peroxyl radical scavenging assay - Food Chem. 129 (2011) 139-148.
R. E. Simone, M. Russo, A. Catalano, G. Monego, K. Fröhlich, V. Böhm, P. Palozza: lycopene inhibits NF-kB -mediated IL-8 expression and changes redox and PPARγ signalling in cigarette smoke-stimulated macrophages - PLoS ONE 6 (2011) 1-11.
Verónica García-Valverde, Inmaculada Navarro-González, Javier García-Alonso & María Jesús Periago. Antioxidant Bioactive Compounds in Selected Industrial Processing and Fresh Consumption Tomato Cultivars. Food Bioprocess Technol. DOI 10.1007/s11947-011-0687-3. Published online 22 September 2011.
F. J. García-Alonso, V. Jorge-Vidal,G. Ros & M. J. Periago. Effect of consumption of tomato juice enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the lipid profile, antioxidant biomarker status, and cardiovascular disease risk in healthy women. Eur J Nutr. DOI 10.1007/s00394-011-0225-0. Published online 14 July 2011.
A number of epidemiological studies have shown the protective potential of lycopene in relation to different illnesses, in particular to cardiovascular diseases. The responsible mechanisms are often not specifically examined, since lycopene is fat-soluble and many laboratory studies are only carried out with cell systems in aqueous solutions.
Therefore, different institutes in LYCOCARD have investigated both the stability of lycopene in cell systems and the suitability of non-aqueous transport systems for the transfer of lycopene into cell models. It was conspicuous that the low density proteins (LDL particles) and the bovine serum albumin protein were equally suitable as physiologically relevant systems for transporting lycopene into the adipocytes (fat cells). For these two transport systems, lycopene stability and uptake rates were comparable to tetrahydrofurane which is often used as solvent [Gourantan et al. 2008]. In a comparable way tetrahydrofurane and micelles (physiological system) were examined as transport systems, in order to carry lycopene into three different, physiologically relevant types of vascular cells (BAEC, THP-1, RAT-1). Compared to the THP-1-cells, the lycopene uptake was higher with both transport systems in BAEC and RAT-1 fibroblasts [Lorenz et al. 2009].
So far, the uptake of lycopene into different cells of the human organism by passive diffusion has generally been assumed. LYCOCARD investigations in human intestine cells and in mice showed that the scavenger receptor type BI (SR-BI), identified as a membrane transporter responsible for the uptake of cholesterol, is also involved in the transport of carotenoids, such as lycopene, into cells. An active transport mechanism for carotenoids could thus be proved [Moussa et al. 2008].
β-carotene-rich tomatoes inhibited HT-29-colon cancer cell growth more strongly than pure β-carotene. This result proves that tomatoes contain ingredients besides carotenoids which provide protective effects [Palozza et al. 2009]. This supports a preference of the natural complex food over the isolated food ingredient. In another cell experiment with human macro phages (THP-1), lycopene was able to prevent the oxidative stress released by a cholesterol oxidation product better than β-carotene [Palozza et al. 2010]. This result proves that the anti-oxidative effect of lycopene is stronger than that of β-carotene.
Analysis of factors affecting extraction and quantitative determination of lycopene content in raw tomatoes and tomato products showed that the test portion, the quantity of neutralising agents and the quantity of water for phase separation all have a major impact on the extraction [Periago et al. 2007]. With this work, this LYCOCARD partner has contributed extensively to the understanding of the analytic conditions present in the determination of lycopene content. Further investigations provided a folate content in raw tomatoes of 4-35 mg/100 g, which was dependant on sort, stage of maturity and year of harvest. Short heating phases (40 seconds, 98 °C) during the pasteurisation of tomato puree improved the extractability of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, whereas higher temperatures (108 °C, 128 °C) reduced the content. During the storage of tomato juice, folate content decreased independently of storage temperatures (8, 22, 37 °C). The decreases were higher in glass bottles than in Tetra Paks [Iniesta et al. 2009].
Homogenisation steps during the production of tomato puree had little influence on the contents of bioactive tomato compounds (carotenoids, polyphenols, vitamin C). While the carotenoids endured the pasteurisation (40 seconds, 98 °C) relatively unchanged, the contents of phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) were lowered by the heating. Single-step and two-step homogenisation improved the extractability of bioactive compounds and thus created tomato products with higher quality [Pérez Conesa et al. 2009].
The 12-month storage of tomato juice in glass bottles and in Tetra Paks at three temperatures (8, 22, 37 °C) showed a comparable stability for lycopene and phenolic compounds unaffected by its packing material. In contrast, the ascorbic acid content clearly decreased during the storage [Garcìa Alonso et al. 2009].
So far, the EU project LYCOCARD has gained important insights for science, industry and the consumer. Improved experimental conditions within cell experiments as well as new knowledge for the absorption of lycopene into cells have provided the base for ongoing mechanistic and human intervention studies. Investigations of the stability of bioactive tomato compounds and on the influence of processing and storage conditions enable the food industry and the consumer to manufacture and/or consume tomato products with higher contents of bioactive ingredients.
Accompanying the investigations described above, a literature search related to epidemiological studies and further studies dealing with tomatoes and cardiovascular health has been done within the fourth project year. Currently, LYCOCARD is collaborating with the Framingham Heart Study of Boston University, USA, to have the Framingham data re-evaluated in relation to lycopene uptake and the use of tomatoes/tomato products to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
This project provides information on the connection between the consumption of lycopene and/or tomato products and the risk of heart illnesses. In addition, nutritional information is to be evaluated five times within 20 years with regard to this context. The total aim of LYCOCARD is to show that high long-term consumption of lycopene is linked to a reduced risk of cardiovascular illnesses. The connection between lycopene absorption and heart diseases is studied and, in addition, the link between the consumption of tomato products and heart diseases. Thus, the LYCOCARD network provides mechanistic data as well as results from intervention studies; it can both complete these data and strengthen their long-term importance.
• Garcìa-Alonso J, Bravo S, Casas J, Pérez-Conesa D, Jacob K, Periago MJ: Changes in antioxidant compounds during the shelf-life of commercial tomato juices in different packaging materials
J. Agric. Food Chem. 57 (2009) 6815-6822
• Gouranton E, El Yazidi C, Cardinault N, Amiot M J, Margotat A, Borel P, Landrier J-F: Purified low-density lipoprotein and bovine serum albumin efficiency to internalise lycopene into adipocytes
Food Chem. Toxicol. 46 (2008) 3832-3836
• Lorenz M, Stangl V, Jacob C, Daemen K, Böhm V, Fröhlich K, Simone R, Baumann G, Stangl K, Palozza P: Delivery of lycopene in physiologically relevant vascular cells
J. Food Lipids 16 (2009) 259-272
• Moussa M, Landrier, J-F, Reboul, E, Ghiringhelli O, Coméra C, Collet X, Fröhlich K, Böhm V, Borel P: Lycopene Absorption in Human Intestinal Cells and in Mice Involves Scavenger Receptor Class B Type I (SR-BI), but Not Niemann Pick C1 Like 1 (NPC1L1)
J. Nutr. 138 (2008) 1432-1436
• Iniesta, M-D, Pérez-Conesa D, García-Alonso J, Ros G, Periago M J: Folate content in tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) as influence of cultivar, ripeness, year of harvest, pasteurization and storage temperatures
J. Agric. Food Chem. 57 (2009) 4739–4745
• Palozza P, Bellovno D, Simone R, Boninsegna A, Cellini F, Monastra G, Gaetani S: Effect of β-carotene-rich tomato lycopene β-cyclase (tlcy-b) on cell growth inhibition in HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells
Br. J. Nutr. 102 (2009) 207-214
• Palozza P, Simone R, Catalano A, Boninsegna, A, Böhm V, Fröhlich K, Mele M-C, Monego G, Ranelletti FO: Lycopene prevents 7-keto-cholesterol-induced oxidative stress, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human macrophages
J. Nutr. Biochem. 21/1 (2010) 34-46
• Pérez-Conesa D, García-Alonso J, García-Valverde V, Iniesta M-D, Ros G, Periago M J: Changes in bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity during homogenisation and thermal processing of tomato puree
Innov. Food Sci. Technol. 10 (2009) 179-188
• Periago M J, Rincón F, Jacob K, García-Alonso J, Ros G: Detection of Key Factors in the Extraction and Quantification of Lycopene from Tomato and Tomato Products
J. Agric. Food Chem. 55 (2007) 8825-8829